Mercury is a planet in our Solar System, which is the smallest and nearest to the sun. Mercury goes around the sun fastest of all the planets. Like other planets, Mercury has no moons.
Mercury was named after Roman God messenger. Romans believed that Gods were in charge of everything that happened on earth and their messengers name was Mercury. The Roman messenger mercury had horns in his helmet and had shoes and could travel anywhere at a very fast speed. The planet Mercury also goes around the sun faster than any other planet of the Solar System. According to Indian astrology, Mercury is known as Buddha and governs education, intelligence, speech, self-confidence etc.
Mercury has a 3:2 ratio with the Sun in the gravitational rotation. Mercury rotates on its axis exactly three times for two revolutions it makes around the sun. When observed from the sun mercury rotates only once in two years and hence. Mercury gets to see the day time only once in two M years.
The size of Mercury is a little bigger than the Earth’s moon. Mercury is made of heavy metals. Earth is eighteen times bigger than Mercury. The surface of Mercury is full of holes. The rocks that fall from space hit Mercury and these holes are created. Earth has atmosphere surrounding it. Mercury does not have any such surrounding layer and hence the atmosphere does not remain stable on Mercury. During day the Mercury gets very hot and during night time Mercury gets very cold. Life on Mercury is highly impossible. Mercury does not have any atmosphere to retain heat and hence the temperature varies from -173oC at night to 427oC during the day.
Mercury goes around the sun very quickly. Mercury goes around the sun once every eighty eight earth days. The day on Mercury lasts longer than the day on earth. One day on Mercury is equal to fifty nine earth days. Mercury moves around the sun within earth’s orbit and hence it is visible into the earth’s sky during morning and evening times. Mercury appears as a bright object from the earth. But, due to its nearness to sun it is not easily seen.
Only two space crafts have so far visited Mercury. Mariner 10 flew around Mercury in 1974 and 1975. Messenger launched in 2004 orbited mercury four thousand times in a span of four years, but, their fuel got exhausted and they crashed onto the planet’s surface.